Trujillo has a rich heritage. In Roman times the town was known as Turgalium and became a prefecture stipendiary of the Lusitanian capital, Emerita Augusta. Later it was colonised by barbarian tribes (mainly Visigoths) although the prevalence of the population would still be Hispano-Romans. With the Muslim invasion and conquest in 711, it became one of the main towns in the region, governed by the Taifa based in Madrid. This taifa was subject to the Umayyad Emirate and subsequent Caliphate ruled through the middle of the 11th Century.
Five centuries of Muslim occupation and control finally ended when an army formed by forces of the Military orders and the Bishop of Plasencia laid siege to the city of Trujillo with the support and blessing of Saint Ferdinand III. Muhammad ibn Hüd tried to relieve the town but was driven off by the besieging army.
Among the most important monuments are the Castle (Alcazaba), the church of Santiago, the church of Santa María la Mayor, the church of San Francisco, the Church of San Martín, the Plaza Mayor, and beautiful palaces like the palace of the Marquis of the Conquest, the palace of the Orellana-Pizarro family, the palace of the Duques de San Carlos, Marquesado de Piedras Albas, the house of the strong Altamirano, Palace Chaves (Luis Chaves Old), and of course the walled old town.
It has several museums: Museum of Coria (Javier Salas Foundation), Home-Museum of Pizarro, Enrique Elías Museum (local designer),Museum of Cheese and Wine.
King Juan II of Castilla gave the town the title of city in 1430. Later it had a Jewish quarter located outside of the powerful medieval walls. Trujillo, with the growth of the population was gradually extended beyond the walls.
Then some Trujillanos went to America to discover new places. When they come back, the built majestic palaces near the Plaza Mayor and surrounds, most of them can be visited today. Francisco Pizarro came back and helped enrich his family in the Plaza Mayor. His daughter from an Incan princess returned at 18 to marry her uncle and lived the rest of her life in Trujillo as a lady of great estate.
During the War for Independence, one of the first authorities that responded to the call of the Junta of Móstoles in May of 1808 was the mayor of Trujillo, Antonio Martin Rivas who prepared enlistments of volunteers, with food and arms, plus the mobilization of troops, to go to the aid of the the Junta. Trujillo was captured by the French in 1811 and held until 1812.
In 1834 the city became the official headquarters of the Judicial District of Trujillo. In the census of 1842 it had 110 households and 6026 residents.